Here are the links and resources from my presentation at the SAF Learning Symposium in Singapore. I had a wonderful time. We started by playing SLS Bingo.
First we discussed, Why Games for Learning in Singapore? And discovered that Singapore has a robust games industry, here is some information about the games industry in Singapore.
Singapore’s games sector comprises of over 62 games development, publishing and services companies. Singapore is home to major video game industry players such as Ubisoft Singapore, Gumi Asia, Garena Interactive and Gameloft Singapore as well as the recently concluded Singapore-MIT GAMBIT Game Lab.
The information about the games industry can be found on the web site of Singapore’s Media Development Authority
Information about the MIT-GAMBIT Game Lab program, which has ended, can be found here.
Next we discussed how Gamification can sometimes be exploited and thought of as ONLY points, badges and leaderboards when it is actually much more than those elements and we highlighted the point by briefly playing the game Progress Wars which illustrates how frustrating it can be if a game mechanic is used ineffectively by itself.
Additionally, we mentioned the abysmal track record of lectures. Here is an article on that subject called Twenty terrible reasons for lecturing
We then discussed how Adobe has created a game to help teach software called Level Up. It is the gamification of software training.
Then we discussed how DARPA in the US is implementing something called Plan X to gamify elements of cyber warfare. Here are some links to interested articles on that topic.
From DARPA about Plan X
Here is an article from Wired on the subject. This Pentagon Project Makes Cyberwar as Easy as Angry Birds
We then discussed how game software code has already been used, in part, to create to create a cyberweapon known as “Flame” while many programs share the same language, the dots are connecting in terms of games and game elements taking on a larger role in cyber warfighting.
Next we looked at two meta-analysis studies that indicated that games can be powerful learning tools.
Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
Here is the abstract from the above research article.
It is assumed that serious games influences learning in 2 ways, by changing cognitive processes and
by affecting motivation. However, until now research has shown little evidence for these assumptions. We used meta-analytic techniques to investigate whether serious games are more effective in terms of learning and more motivating than conventional instruction methods (learning: k=77, N = 5,547; motivation: k = 31, N = 2,216). Consistent with our hypotheses, serious games were found to be more effective in terms of learning (d = 0.29, p < .01) and retention (d = 0.36, p < .01), but they were not more motivating (d = 0.26, p > .05) than conventional instruction methods. Additional moderator analyses on the learning effects revealed that learners in serious games learned more, relative to those taught with conventional instruction methods, when the game was supplemented with other instruction methods, when multiple training sessions were involved, and when players worked in groups.
Here is a slide deck that references many of the slides and research from this session.
Also referenced was research about games and cognition supported by a grant from DSO National Laboratories, Singapore
In short, as reported by boston.com
Researchers from Nanyang Technological University in Singapore recruited 75 men and women who were non-gamers to play five different games on their smartphones for an hour a day. Randomly assigned to groups, subjects played spatial memory games such as “Bejeweled,” hidden object games such as “Hidden Expedition,” or action games such as “Modern Combat: Sandstorm.” After a month of game playing, the researchers found that subjects who played action games boosted their ability to track multiple objects in a short amount of time. Meanwhile, those who played spatial memory and hidden object games improved their performance on visual search tasks.
We also discussed the meta-analysis by Robert Hays which discussed the need to embedded games within a curriculum and not treat them as a separate learning item. Here is a link to the Hays article, lots of good information in the article (although, at this point, a little dated.)
Here is an dissertation discussing the use of off-the-shelf games to help teach management skills. A Causal-Comparative Exploration Of The Relationship Between Game-Based Learning And Academic Achievement: Teaching Management With Video Games
We discussed Malone’s Theory of Intrinsic Motivation. Brett Bixler of Penn State has an interesting piece on motivation related to what we discussed.
Then we discussed knowledge transfer and references a paper by ADL titled Transfer of Training from Simulations in Civilian and Military Workforces: Perspectives from the Current Body of Literature
Next we discussed the power of story and how it can be more impactful than simply listing bulleted information. The article is titled This Is Your Life (and How You Tell It)
We then discussed the awesome app…Zombies, Run! Here is the video explaining the game.
Next, we talked about how behavior can be changed via games and game elements. In particular we discussed an articled titled Virtual Superheroes: Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. Here is a link to a larger discussion of behavior change through games called Using Games and Avatars to Change Learner Behavior
We also talked about how being an avatar for a period of time can change attitudes based on the research in the article Yee, N., & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk a mile in digital shoes: The impact of embodied perspective-taking on the reduction of negative stereotyping in immersive virtual environments. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence. August 24 &ndash 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
Then we looked at a couple of examples, one is called Connect with Haji Kamal – World Warfighter and here is a blog entry by Cathy Moore who explains how she designed the game. The blog entry is called Elearning example: Branching scenario
We also looked at the Game Commons of the Defense Acquisition University which houses many games for teaching a variety of topics.
If you want to get started with gamification and game-based learning, here are some resources that can help.
Fall 2011 Training Industry Quarterly Article: Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer
July 2012 T&D Article: Games, Gamification and the Quest for Interactive Learning
Fall 2012 Training Industry Quarterly Article 5 Gaming Elements for elearning
If you are interested in an expanded version of the information from above, see the book below.
Additional Related Books:
Click here to visit a catalog of Resources on this subject.
On another note:
Here is a link to some of the innovative tools that were shown in the exhibition
With all the spying going on around here I thought I would post this PSA to help everyone out. (somewhat in jest) How to Spot an Undercover Agent infographic
Games are emotional, in a game there are typically winners and losers. The winners feel great! The losers, don’t feel great:( As someone creating or commissioning an instructional game, are you prepared to deal with the losers of that instructional game? That’s right, if you create an instructional game or gamification that is based on [...]
Posted on 29. May, 2013 by karlkapp.
Wow!, had a great time at the ASTD ICE Conference which recently concluded in Dallas Texas. What a great opportunity to catch up with old friends, make new friends and to stay informed of all the happenings in the world of learning. Play to Learn Workshop I started the conference co-facilitating a workshop with Sharon [...]
Here are the resources from my ASTD ICE 2013 presentation and here is the link to the workshop I am co-presenting called Play to Learn: Designing Effective Learning Games. Would love to see you there, we will be learning about a creating games…a great way to get started designing games for learning. W209 – Interactivity, [...]
Posted on 21. May, 2013 by karlkapp.
Recently Sharon Boller of Bottom Line Performance and I did a presentation at ASTD2013 on Instructional Game Design. We talked about game design, the need to play games and how games can be used for learning in the first part of the one day workshop and in the second half of the workshop, we had [...]
Sharon Boller, Steve Boller and Leanne Batchelder from Bottom Line Performance and myself co-presented a workshop on game design and here are the slides and some other resources related to the workshop which you may find helpful. The workshop is called “Play to Learn.” And, if you couldn’t make it to this “sold out” workshop, [...]
Here are the resources from my presentation. Here are the slides: Companies Mentioned Enspire Learning Zombies Run Game On! Learning
Posted on 13. May, 2013 by karlkapp.
Here is a neat infographic on how 3D printers will revolutionize learning, or instructional technology department just ordered one which we will receive this summer. (can you say manipulatives…an old but great concept). Would like to credit OnlineDegrees.org for this graphic.
These three slide shows are not specifically about instructional design but, when creating online learning, I think these slide shows present a great deal to consider. Using just some of these techniques will make your online learning “POP”! Here is one on slide design: Visual Design Basics from Sumeet Moghe Here is one on News [...]